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Table of Contents
When the word nicotine is mentioned, most people immediately think of cigarettes. The question is, however, whether nicotine is actually beneficial when taken alone?
If you were unaware, nicotine is an addictive stimulant similar to caffeine in that it increases your heart rate, blood pressure, and heart muscle contractility. As we will discuss later, one difference between nicotine and caffeine is their half-life.
In relation to nicotine, there are two potential benefits: cognitive improvement and increased athletic performance.
The main effects of nicotine on the brain are mediated by nicotine binding to the alpha4beta2 receptor. Essentially, as a result of nicotine, dopamine is released. In turn, this increases feelings of wellness, alertness, etc.
Nicotine Cognitive Improvement
In terms of cognitive enhancement, some would call it a 'super nootropic'. In theory, this makes sense, however, when analyzing data it can be challenging.
There is a great deal of information on nicotine when consumed in conjunction with tobacco products, which we do not recommend at all. On its own, it appears to be beneficial for older adults who suffer from cognitive impairments.
It is therefore difficult to determine whether nicotine would have a significant impact on a person operating normally cognitively. Even then, what is the desired outcome? More focus? Being more alert? In order to be able to anticipate these outcomes, we need to be able to define them clearly.
In addition, we must be cautious when it comes to its addictive properties and its potential to be a gateway to things like smoking if one isn't already a smoker. Does it even make sense to pursue potential outcomes?
Nicotine Gym Performance
In terms of nicotine and gym performance this is where things get interesting.
Sixteen male athletes took part in a double-blind, acute crossover study comparing the effects of a 5mg nicotine sublingual strip versus a placebo on two 30-second Wingate tests with three minutes rest between bouts. 
Here are some key takeaways from this paper on nicotine and gym performance.
Peak and average power output were significantly increased following nicotine compared to placebo.
Nicotine administration was also associated with a higher heart rate and blood pressure than placebo administration
A potential mechanism for this is the release of dopamine. As a result of dopamine activity in the reward center of the brain, perceptions of discomfort due to exercise are reduced.
If you are going to experiment with nicotine, which I wouldn’t advise at this stage, either chew 2mg nicotine gum 20 minutes prior to training, or dissolve 5mg of nicotine in the form of sublingual strips prior to training while carefully avoiding the ingestion of your own saliva
In light of this, proceeding with caution is recommended, even though there are some interesting developments. We explored this topic because of the stigma surrounding nicotine and the fact that it is not often considered a performance enhancer.
This year (Jan 23), a research paper was published regarding 'beetroot gains' which sought to determine where dietary nitrates are active, in order to provide clues as to their mechanism of action. 
By putting performance outcomes aside, we will be able to see what occurs physiologically when drinking beetroot juice. Based on the results of this paper, it is clear that something is actually taking place.
They found that skeletal muscle rapidly takes up dietary NO3 (nitrate) and then declines during exercise. This is thought to be the mechanism behind the increasing muscle force in other studies.
There are also two papers that examine the effects of beetroot juice consumption on bench press power and strength endurance  .
In the later study (Williams et al 2020) , 70ml shots (400mg of nitrate) were administered and compared to a placebo. The results indicated that supplementation with beetroot juice allowed for a few more repetitions.
As a result, there could be some applications for supplementation in resistance training, particularly in competitive environments.
When it comes to beetroot supplementation in cardio based activity such as HIIT (high intensity interval training) and SIT (single interval training) the outcomes are different.
A 2021 systematic review & meta-analysis looked at The Effect of Beetroot Ingestion on High-Intensity Interval Training 
17 studies were included, 7 being acute (taken before activity) and 10 chronic (taken over a long period of time)
A summary of the participants’ characteristics
The 17 included studies included 319 participants–19.4% (n = 62) females, 80.6% (n = 257) males. The largest sample size was 52 , and the smallest was 7 . The mean age range of participants was from 20.7 ± 1.3 to 31.0 ± 15.0 years. The participants consisted of healthy adults (n = 7), recreational exercisers (n = 156), competitive/trained individuals (n = 147) and elite athletes (n = 9).
Doses varies from one 70ml shot (400mg nitrate) up to 4-500ml of beetroot juice.
In general, the body of literature regarding beetroot juice isn't large, especially compared to things like creatine, and there is clearly a disproportionate amount of research on men.
According to the findings of this study, beetroot juice supplementation did not significantly impact performance. They do not claim that it does nothing, just that it is not significant in this context.
In an elite high performance environment, supplementation might be appropriate, but it appears most appropriate in the context of resistance training based on power and strength endurance.
NHS Health Quiz
This new NHS health quiz aims to provide you with guidance on how to lead a healthier lifestyle. The question is, and as the Daily Mail put it, "how unhealthy are you according to the BRUTAL NHS health quiz?" (It isn't brutal)
We both go through this NHS health quiz in the podcast above (39:07 to be exact), so if you want to hear what we think as we navigate each section, take a listen!
As a whole, it appears that the vast majority of these efforts have sought to move away from weight-related concerns. The focus has been on examining your physical activity and nutritional habits, as well as lifestyle factors like smoking and drinking, which, to be fair, is a positive step.
We have evidence to show that, when we consider overall health in terms of a physical sense, we will be more successful if we pursue approach-based goals here with regard to improving our health, such as moving more or recommending more fruit or fiber, vegetables, etc., rather than avoiding goals.
It's interesting, they kind of opted for a weight neutral approach to this, for the most part. However, some of the questions in the questionnaire are very ambiguous. For example, when it says on a scale of 1 to 100 how chirpy you are compared to not being chirpy at all.
Compared to other tests it's not bad at all and some of the recommendations at the end could help you so we'd suggest exploring the test for yourself.
 Effect of nicotine on repeated bouts of anaerobic exercise in nicotine naïve individuals
 Ingestion of a Nitric Oxide Enhancing Supplement Improves Resistance Exercise Performance
 Effect of Acute Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Bench Press Power, Velocity, and Repetition Volume
 The Effect of Beetroot Ingestion on High-Intensity Interval Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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